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Frequently Asked Questions

Cryogenic Tank Safety

Jun 2, 2020, 15:29 PM
Title : Cryogenic Tank Safety

get started buying gases onlineLiquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are cryogenic liquids. Their boiling temperatures are:

  • Liquid Oxygen -297.3°F | -183°C
  • Liquid Nitrogen -320.4°F | -195.8°C
  • Liquid Argon -302.6°F | -185.9°C

The sublimation point of Liquid CO2 is -109.3°F | -78.5°C.

To minimize heat transfer and sustain very low temperatures, the storage vessel must be specially designed. Storage vessels for liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are commercially available in various capacities from 350 to 13,000 U.S. gallons (1,325 to 49,210 liters) water capacity. The storage vessels may be either vertical, spherical, or horizontal depending on the site and consumption requirements for Cryogenic Bulk Tanks.

Cryogenic liquids storage vessels have three basic components:

  1. Inner Pressure Vessel
    A vessel usually made of stainless steel or other materials that have favorable strength characteristics when exposed to cryogenic temperatures.

  2. Outer Vessel
    A vessel made of carbon steel or stainless steel. Under normal operating conditions, this vessel retains the insulation around the inner pressure vessel, and can also maintain a vacuum around the inner vessel. Typically, the outer vessel is not exposed to cryogenic temperatures.

  3. Insulation
    The space between the inner and outer vessel, containing several inches of insulating material maintained in a vacuum. The vacuum and insulating material help to reduce heat transfer and thereby reduce the boil-off of the liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen or liquid argon stored within the vessel.

The inner vessel of the storage tank is typically designed to sustain a maximum allowable working pressure of 250 psig (1724 kPa). Vessels may be fabricated for higher or lower working pressures and special applications. The service pressure of the vessel is adjustable.

Caution: Storage Facility Maintenance

Only authorized and trained personnel should maintain and operate the liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen or liquid argon storage facility and its components. Safety concerns should be reported immediately.

General Safety Rules for Liquid Oxygen, Liquid Nitrogen and Liquid Argon

The following are general safe handling rules for liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon:

  • Do not store liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen or liquid argon in confined spaces or poorly ventilated areas.
  • Ensure that cryogenic liquids are handled only by persons instructed in the properties of the material and in the proper procedures for handling it.
  • Ensure that all piping in which cryogenic liquids could be trapped between two valves and receptacles is equipped with pressure relief valves that are piped to properly designed vents.
  • vDo not smoke or create sparks near liquid oxygen equipment and tanks. Do not approach liquid oxygen tanks with an open flame.

Cryo Station Layout

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Cryogenic Storage Tank Specifications - Oxygen, Nitrogen and Argon

CharacteristicsTM-500TM-900TM-1500TM-3000TM-6000TM-9000TM-11000
Gross Volume (gal)5689561,6113,1176,0229,18011,290
Net Capacity (gal)5309041,5173,0005,8898,90011,040
Oxygen (cft)61,000104,000174,600345,200677,7001,024,4001,266,100
Nitrogen (cft)49,30084,100141,200279,200548,100826,7001,024,200
Argon (cft)59,600101,600170,654337,200662,0001,001,3001,237,500
Maximum Working Pressure Liquid Container (psig)250250250250250250250
Weight (lb)
Tank Empty5,4009,70010,30015,50027,80037,00047,000
Filled Oxygen10,50018,40024,80044,10084,000121,800152,000
Filled Nitrogen9,10015,80020,60035,80067,60097,000121,000
Filled Argon11,70020,30028,00050,40096,300140,500175,000
Dimensions
Diameter (in)6078789696114122
Height (ft-in)15-615-915-916-025-927-1031-7

Cryogenic Storage Tank Specifications - Carbon Dioxide - Horizontal

Characteristics6 Ton12 Ton14 Ton26 Ton34 Ton54 Ton
Net Volume (tons)61214263454
Maximum Working Pressure (psig)350350350350350350
Weight
Empty12,00018,00010,40025,00027,50043,000
Filled24,00042,00038,40052,00095,500151,000
Dimensions
Diameter (in)646888909494
Height (ft-in)15-022-015-331-032-048-5

Cryogenic Storage Tank Specifications - Carbon Dioxide - Vertical

Characteristics14 Ton30 Ton50 Ton
Net Volume (tons)143050
Maximum Working Pressure (psig)350350350
Weight (lbs)
Empty15,50030,00040,000
Filled43,50090,000140,000
Dimensions
Diameter (in)9696114
Height (ft-in)20-425-339-6
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